If you are interested to use some of the GTP scales, please send a message to the below address:

Three scales have been validated to assess GTP.

  • The GTP scale with 20 items. Validate in English, Spanish, Turkish, Polish and Chinese
  • The short version with five items (GTP5-SF). Validate in Norwegian and Spanish
  • The multidimensional scale (GTP-MDS) with 38 items. Validate in English and Spanish

The Game Transfer Phenomena Scale 20-items

The GTPS comprises a total of 20 items in a 5-point Likert scale of frequency (“Never” to “All the time”). 1= never, 2= once, 3= a few times 4= many times 5= all the time.

Dimensions or modalities:

(i) Altered visual perceptions, (ii) altered auditory perceptions, (iii) altered body perceptions, (iv) automatic mental processes, and (v) actions and behaviours will be measured.

Altered visual perceptions

Include mind visualizations, pseudo-hallucinatory experiences (e.g., seeing game icons above people’s heads), visual adaptations (e.g., perceiving objects or environments distorted), and visual misperceptions (e.g., confusing physical objects with those in the game.

Altered body perceptions

Includes proprioception (e.g., sensations of body or limb movement), tactile perception (e.g., pushing buttons of gamepad), and cronoceptive perception (e.g., feeling time slow down *after playing).

Altered auditory perceptions

Include auditory involuntary imagery (e.g., hearing auditory cues in the head), auditory hallucinations (e.g., hearing sounds coming from objects), inner speech (e.g., hearing one’s own thoughts preserving features from video game character’s voices), and auditory misperceptions (e.g., confusing physical sounds with those from the game).

Automatic mental processes

Manifest as thoughts, urges, and automatic mental actions. These range from thoughts about the game (e.g., thinking continuously about the game) to cognitive biases (e.g., experiencing attention bias toward game-related cues, jumping to conclusions bias), and source monitoring errors (e.g., confusing what an in-game character said with what a person said)

Behaviors and actions

Can range from experiencing involuntary motor activations (e.g., involuntary movements of limbs) to performing actions inspired by the video game or changes in behavior influenced by the video game (e.g., avoiding specific places, mimicking video game characters, having verbal outbursts).

The scale has been validated in:

  • Heterogenous sample (N= 1,736): Cronbach’s alpha 0.94 (S1),0.93 (S2). 
Ortiz de Gortari, A. B., Pontes, H. A., & Griffiths, M. D. (2015). The Game Transfer Phenomena Scale: An instrument for investigating the non-volitional effects of video game playing. Cyberpsychology, Behavior, and Social Networking. Download 
  • Turkish sample (N=954) : Cronbach’s alpha 0.923.

Dindar, M., & Ortiz de Gortari, A. B. (2017). Turkish Validation of the Game Transfer Phenomena Scale (GTPS): Measuring altered perceptions, automatic mental processes and actions and behaviours associated with playing video games. Telematics and Informatics, 34(8), 1802-1813.

  • Polish sample (N=699): The Cronbach’s alpha in total sample .908 to .940, males .912 to .944 and females .898 to .934.

Cudo, A., Zabielska-Mendyk, E., & Ortiz de Gortari, A. B. (2022). Psychometric assessment and gender invariance of the Polish adaptation of the Game Transfer Phenomena Scale. Advances in Pscyhology, 18(1), 48-63. 

  • Spanish sample (N=607) the Cronbach’s alpha was of731 to 0.853 for the GTP subscales.

Ortiz de Gortari, A. B., & Cudo, A. (2023). Adaptation of the Game Transfer Phenomena Scale into Spanish: Sensory-Perceptual Changes, Intrusive Thoughts, and Involuntary Behaviors in Mexican Video Game Players. Revista Internacional de Investigación en Adicciones, 9(1), 6-21.

  • Simplified Chinese sample (N=625) Cronbach’s alpha .914

Wang, C., Ortiz de Gortari, A.B., Charles, F., Tang, W. (2023) Chinese validation of the Game Transfer Phenomena Scale. Under review.


  • To obtain participants’ total scores, all 20 items.must be summed up.
  • To determine the levels of severity of GTP in the sample, three groups (low, moderate and severe) were created based on 80-points of the GTP scale (Ortiz de Gortari, Oldfield, & Griffiths, 2016). Never= 0, never experienced any GTP, low GTP= 1 to 26, moderate= 27 to 53 and severe= 54 to 80. 

The scale has been validated in: English, Spanish, Polish, Turkish and Chinesse.

We have the translation of the items in Swedish, Norwegian.

The GTP Multidimensional Scale (GTP-MDS)

The GTP-MDS consisit in 38-items in different subscales.

  • Measure a broad spectrum of intrusive cognitions, perceptual distortions, and dissociations with game content.
  • It differentiates players’ experiences manifesting as endogenous phenomena “inner intrusions” such as mind visualizations, seeing images with closed eyes, hearing music/sounds in the head, from exogenous phenomena manifesting externalized “outer intrusions” such as seeing images with open eyes, seeing objects/environment distorted, hearing sound/music outside the head.
  • It also assesses corporal adaptations and dissociations such as sensations of still being in the game environment, tactile sensations, and changes in body perception.

More details

The scale has been validated in English and Spanish.

Ortiz de Gortari, A. B., & Diseth, Å. (2022). Multidimensional assessment of Game Transfer Phenomena: Intrusive cognitions, perceptual distortions, hallucinations and dissociations. Frontiers in Psychology, 13Download

GTPS5-Short Form (GTP5-SF)

The GTP-5SF is based on the original 20-items GTP scale and examines GTP in three sensory modalities, visual, auditory and body, and also examines thoughts and behaviours.

It has been validated in Norwegian and in Spanish.

More details.