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The Game Transfer Phenomena Scale (GTPS) comprises a total of 20 items in a 5-point Likert scale of frequency (“Never” to “All the time”). 0= never, 1= once, 2= a few times 3= many times 4= all the time.

Dimensions o modalities:

(i) Altered visual perceptions, (ii) altered auditory perceptions, (iii) altered body perceptions, (iv) automatic mental processes, and (v) actions and behaviours will be measured.

Altered visual perceptions

Include mind visualizations, pseudo-hallucinatory experiences (e.g., seeing game icons above people’s heads), visual adaptations (e.g., perceiving objects or environments distorted), and visual misperceptions (e.g., confusing physical objects with those in the game.

Altered body perceptions

Includes proprioception (e.g., sensations of body or limb movement), tactile perception (e.g., pushing buttons of gamepad), and cronoceptive perception (e.g., feeling time slow down *after playing).

Altered auditory perceptions

Include auditory involuntary imagery (e.g., hearing auditory cues in the head), auditory hallucinations (e.g., hearing sounds coming from objects), inner speech (e.g., hearing one’s own thoughts preserving features from video game character’s voices), and auditory misperceptions (e.g., confusing physical sounds with those from the game).

Automatic mental processes

Manifest as thoughts, urges, and automatic mental actions. These range from thoughts about the game (e.g., thinking continuously about the game) to cognitive biases (e.g., experiencing attention bias toward game-related cues, jumping to conclusions bias), and source monitoring errors (e.g., confusing what an in-game character said with what a person said)

Behaviors and actions

Can range from experiencing involuntary motor activations (e.g., involuntary movements of limbs) to performing actions inspired by the video game or changes in behavior influenced by the video game (e.g., avoiding specific places, mimicking video game characters, having verbal outbursts).

The scale has been validated in:

  • Heterogenous sample: Cronbach’s alpha 0.94 (S1),0.93 (S2). 
Ortiz de Gortari, A. B., Pontes, H. A., & Griffiths, M. D. (2015). The Game Transfer Phenomena Scale: An instrument for investigating the non-volitional effects of video game playing. Cyberpsychology, Behavior, and Social Networking. Download 
  • Turkish sample: Cronbach’s alpha 0.923.

Dindar, M., & Ortiz de Gortari, A. B. (2017). Turkish Validation of the Game Transfer Phenomena Scale (GTPS): Measuring altered perceptions, automatic mental processes and actions and behaviours associated with playing video games. Telematics and Informatics, 34(8), 1802-1813.


  • To obtain participants’ total scores, all 20 items.must be summed up.
  • To determine the levels of severity of GTP in the sample, three groups (low, moderate and severe) were created based on 80-points of the GTP scale (Ortiz de Gortari, Oldfield, & Griffiths, 2016). Never= 0, never experienced any GTP, low GTP= 1 to 26, moderate= 27 to 53 and severe= 54 to 80. 

The items has been translated in: English, Spanish, Swedish, Norwegian and Turkish.